Research Papers

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International Ground Source Heat Pump Association, Conference and Expo, March 14-16, 2017
Denver, CO

Executive Scientific Committee:

Jeffrey D. Spitler, Oklahoma State University, USA (Chair)
Michel Bernier, Polytechnique Montréal, Canada
Zhaohong Fang, Shandong Jianzhu University, China
Signhild Gehlin, Swedish Centre for Shallow Geothermal Energy, Sweden
Simon J. Rees, University of Leeds, UK.

Sources:

http://ghpok.org/

http://www.hvac.okstate.edu/

2017

Gehlin, S. and J.D. Spitler 2017.Workshop summary on "Ground source heat pump systems". Heat Pumping Technologies Magazine. 35(2):20.

Liu, X. P. Hughes, J. Spitler, A. Anderson. 2017.An Updated Assessment of the Technical Potential of Geothermal Heat Pump Applications in the United States. IGSHPA Technical/ Research Conference Proceedings. Denver. March 14-16, 2017. pp. 8-16. DOI:10.22488/okstate.17.000538

Xing, L., J.D. Spitler, L. Li, P. Hu.A Model for Ground Temperature Estimations and Its Impact on Horizontal Ground Heat Exchanger Design. IGSHPA Technical/ Research Conference Proceedings. Denver. March 14-16, 2017. pp. 92-101. DOI:10.22488/okstate.17.000511

Javed, S. and J.D. Spitler. 2017.Accuracy of Borehole Thermal Resistance Calculation Methods for Grouted Single U-tube Ground Heat Exchangers. Applied Energy.187:790-806.

Spitler, J.D., L.E. Southard, X. Liu. 2017.Ground-source and air-source heat pump system performance at the ASHRAE headquarters building. 12thIEA Heat Pump Conference. Rotterdam. May 15-18. ISBN 978-90-9030412-0.

Xing, L. and J. D. Spitler. 2017.Prediction of undisturbed ground temperature using analytical and numerical modeling. Part I: Model development and experimental validation. Science and Technology for the Built Environment 23(5): 787-808.

Xing, L. and J. D. Spitler. 2017.Prediction of undisturbed ground temperature using analytical and numerical modeling. Part II: Methodology for developing a world-wide dataset. Science and Technology for the Built Environment 23(5): 809-825.

Xing, L., J. D. Spitler and A. Bandyopadhyay. 2017.Prediction of undisturbed ground temperature using analytical and numerical modeling. Part III: Experimental validation of a world-wide dataset. Science and Technology for the Built Environment 23(5): 826-842.

2016

Spitler, J.D. 2016.Latest Developments and Trends in Ground-Source Heat Pump Technology. ("Extended abstract" to accompany keynote address.) European Geothermal Congress, Strasbourg, France. September 19-24.

Sarfraz, O. &Bach, C. K. 2016.A Literature review on heat exchanger fouling in Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC) applications. Purdue Conferences 2016. West Lafayette. Paper 2234.

Beier, R. A. and J. D. Spitler. 2016.Weighted average of inlet and outlet temperatures in borehole heat exchangers. Applied Energy 174:118-129.

Spitler, J.D., S. Javed and R. Kalskin Ramstad. 2016.Natural convection in groundwater-filled boreholes used as ground heat exchangers.Applied Energy. 164:352-365.

Spitler, J.D., R. Grundmann and S. Javed. 2016.Calculation Tool for Effective Borehole Thermal Resistance. 12thREHVA World Congress – Clima 2016. Aalborg, Denmark. May 22-25. (An index of Clima 2016 papers related to GSHP systems ishere.)

Gehlin, S.E.A., J.D. Spitler and G. Hellström. 2016.Deep Boreholes for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems – Scandinavian Experience and Future Prospects. ASHRAE Winter Conference, Orlando. January 23-27.

2015

Spitler, J.D. and S.E.A. Gehlin. 2015.Thermal Response Testing for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems – Some History. IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter 33(4):29-32.

Spitler, J.D. 2015.Observations on ground-source heat pump systems in North America and Scandinavia. IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter 33(3):4-5.

Spitler, J.D. and S.E.A. Gehlin. 2015.Thermal response testing for ground source heat pump systems - An historical review.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 50:1125-1137.

Xiong, Z., D.E. Fisher, J.D. Spitler. 2015.Development and Validation of a SlinkyTMGround Heat Exchanger Model.Applied Energy. 141:57-69.

Cullin, J.R., J.D. Spitler, C. Montagud, F. Ruiz-Calvo, S.J. Rees, S.S. Naicker, P. Konečný, and L.E. Southard. 2015.Validation of Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger Design Methodologies. Science and Technology for the Built Environment. 21(2):137-149.

Gehlin, S.E.A. and J.D. Spitler. 2015.Effects of ground heat exchanger design flow velocities on system performance of ground source heat pump systems in cold climates. ASHRAE Winter Conference, Chicago. January 24-28.

2014

Katzenbach, R., C. G. Olgun, F. A. Loveridge, M. Sutman, G. A. Bowers, J. S. McCartney, L. Laloui, T. Mimouni, F. Dupray, J. D. Spitler, F. Clauss, L. L. Meyer and G. Akrouch. 2014. New technologies and applications: materials and equipment in near surface geothermal systems. DFI Journal: The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute. 8(2):93-107.

Southard, L.E., X. Liu, J.D. Spitler. 2014.Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ – Part 2. ASHRAE Journal. December 2014, 56(12):12-23.

Xu, H. and J. D. Spitler. 2014.The relative importance of moisture transfer, soil freezing and snow cover on ground temperature predictions.Renewable Energy 72: 1-11.

Southard, L.E., X. Liu, J.D. Spitler. 2014.Performance of HVAC Systems at ASHRAE HQ – Part 1.ASHRAE Journal. September 2014, 56(9):14-24.

Bach, C.K., E. A. Groll, J. E. Braun, and W. T. Horton (2014).Application of two hybrid control methods of expansion valves and vapor injected compression to heat pumps.11th International Energy Agency Heat Pump Conference, Montreal.

Bach, C.K., E. A. Groll, J. E. Braun, and W. T. Horton (2014).Experimental Investigation of Vapor Injected Compression for Cold Climate Heat Pumps.Purdue Conferences 2014, West Lafayette.

Spitler, J.D., M.Y. Wong, and S.E.A. Gehlin. 2014.Effect of Residential Ground Source Heat Pump System Design on CO2 Emissions in Sweden.ASHRAE Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington. June 28-July 2.

Spitler, J.D., L. Xing and V. Malayappan. 2014.A Simple Tool for Simulation of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. IEA Heat Pump Conference, Montreal. May 12-16.

Gehlin, S. and J.D. Spitler. 2014.A Thermo-Economic Analysis of a Residential Ground-Source Heat Pump System: One Deeper vs. Two Shallower Boreholes. IEA Heat Pump Conference, Montreal. May 12-16.

Cai, S., L. Cremaschi, A.J. Ghajar, 2014,Pipe Insulation Thermal Conductivity under Dry and Wet Condensing Conditions with Moisture Ingress: A Critical Review,HVAC& Research.20(4). pp. 458-479.

Cullin, J.R., J.D. Spitler, S. Gehlin. 2014.Suitability of foundation heat exchangers for ground source heat pump systems in European climates. The REHVA European HVAC Journal. 51(1). pp. 36-40.

Spitler, J.D., M.Y. Wong, and S.E.A. Gehlin. 2014.Effect of Residential Ground Source Heat Pump System Design on CO2Emissions in Sweden. IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter 32(2):25-28.

Gehlin, S.E.A. and J.D. Spitler. 2014.Design of Residential Ground Source Heat Pump Systems for Heating Dominated Climates - Trade-Offs Between Ground Heat Exchanger Design and Supplementary Electric Resistance Heating. ASHRAE Winter Conference. New York, New York. January 18-22.

2013

Cullin, J.R., J.D. Spitler, and E. Lee. 2013.Preliminary investigation of the effect of horizontal piping on the performance of a vertical ground heat exchanger system. ASHRAE Transactions. 119(2):301-311

Lee, E.S., D.E. Fisher and J.D. Spitler. 2013.Efficient Horizontal Ground Heat Exchanger Simulation with Zone Heat Balance Integration. HVAC&R Research. 19(3): 307-323.

Malayappan, V. and J.D. Spitler. 2013.Limitations of Using Uniform Heat Flux Assumptions in Sizing Vertical Borehole Heat Exchanger Fields. Proceedings of Clima 2013. June 16-19. Prague.

Mitchell, M., J.D. Spitler 2013.Open-loop Direct Surface Water Cooling and Surface Water Heat Pump Systems – A Review. HVAC&R Research. 19(2):125-140.

Moallem, E., T. Hong, L. Cremaschi, and D.E. Fisher, 2013,Developing Empirical Correlations for Frost Thickness and Air Face Velocity Degradation for Microchannel Heat Exchangers Used in Heat Pump Applications under Frosting Conditions, in HVAC& Research Journal, 19 (7), pp. 779-787.

Spitler, J.D. and P. Im. 2013.Foundation Heat Exchangers for Residential Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter 31(2):34-37.

2012

Cullin, J.R., L. Xing, E. Lee, J.D. Spitler and D.E. Fisher. 2012.Feasibility of Foundation Heat Exchangers for Residential Ground Source Heat Pump Systems In the United States. ASHRAE Transactions. 118(1):1039-1048

Ramesh, A. and J.D. Spitler. 2012.A quasi-two-dimensional standing column well model for ground source heat pump systems. Proceedings of Innostock 2012, The 12th International Conference on Energy Storage. Lleida, Spain. May 2012

2011

Beier, R., M.D. Smith, and J.D. Spitler. 2011.Reference data sets for vertical borehole ground heat exchanger models and thermal response test analysis.Geothermics 40(1): 79-85.

Cullin, J.R. and J.D. Spitler. 2011.A computationally efficient hybrid time step methodology for simulation of ground heat exchangers.Geothermics 40(2): 144-156

Fan, D., S. J. Rees, and J.D. Spitler. 2011.Application of Dynamic Thermal Networks to the Modelling of Foundation Heat Exchangers.Building Simulation 2011. Sydney, Australia, IBPSA. Available onIBPSA.org

Javed, S., J.D. Spitler and P. Fahlén. 2011.An Experimental Investigation of the Accuracy of Thermal Response Tests Used to Measure Ground Thermal Properties. ASHRAE Transactions. 117(1):13-21.

Spitler, J.D. and M. Bernier. 2011. Ground-source Heat Pump Systems: The First Century and Beyond.(Editorial).HVAC&R Research. 17(6):891-894

Xing, L. J.R. Cullin, J.D. Spitler, D.E. Fisher, and P. Im. 2011.Foundation Heat Exchangers for Residential Ground Source Heat Pump Systems - Numerical Modeling and Experimental Validation.HVAC&R Research. 17(6):1059-1074

2010

Horizontal Borehole Study - OG&E Ground Source Heat Exchanger Study

Ten horizontal boreholes have been drilled to determine if thermal performance varies between boreholes with bentonite grout and those without grout. If grout is not used, drilling mud and cuttings remain in the borehole. All the boreholes pass through clay soil...

Click here to download pdf file.
Richard A. Beiera and William A. Hollowayb
aMechanical Engineering Technology Department and bElectrical Engineering Technology Department, Oklahoma State University
rick.beier@okstate.edu

Cullin, J.R., and J.D. Spitler. 2010.Comparison of simulation-based design procedures for hybrid ground source heat pump systems. Proceedings of System Simulation in Buildings 2010. Liège, Belgium. December 13-15.

Spitler, J., L. Xing, J. Cullin, D. Fisher, J. Shonder, and P. Im. 2010.Residential Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Utilizing Foundation Heat Exchangers. Proceedings of Clima 2010, Antalya, Turkey. May 9-12.

Xing, L., J.D. Spitler, and J.R. Cullin. 2010.Modeling of foundation heat exchangers. Proceedings of System Simulation in Buildings 2010. Liège, Belgium. December 13-15.

2009

Purging and Air Removal - OG&E Ground Source Heat Exchanger Study

Ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) often use closed loops to couple the ground with the heat pump as illustrated in Figure 1. Plastic pipe may be installed in vertical boreholes, horizontal trenches, or bodies of water. The chosen configuration for a ...

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Richard A. Beier
Mechanical Engineering Technology Department, Oklahoma State University
rick.beier@okstate.edu

Gao, Q., M. Li, M. Yu, J. Spitler, and Y. Yan. 2009.Review of development from GSHP to UTES in China and other countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 13(6-7):1383-1394.

Shonder, J., and J.D. Spitler. 2009.Foundation Heat Exchangers: Reducing the First Cost of Ground Source Heat Pumps. IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter 27(1):22-23.

Spitler, J., J. Cullin, M. Bernier, M. Kummert, P. Cui, X. Liu, E. Lee, and D. Fisher. 2009.Preliminary intermodel comparison of ground heat exchanger simulation models. Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage; Effstock 2009, Stockholm, Sweden, June 14-17.

2008

Soil Thermal Conductivity Tests- OG&E Ground Source Heat Exchanger Study

The design of ground loops for heat pump systems depends on the thermal conductivity of the soil and rock that surrounds the ground heat exchanger. Thermal conductivity is a measure of the capacity of a material to conduct heat. A larger soil...

Click here to download pdf file.
Richard A. Beier
Mechanical Engineering Technology Department, Oklahoma State University
rick.beier@okstate.edu

Spitler, J.D., and J. Cullin. 2008.Misconceptions Regarding Design of Ground-source Heat Pump Systems. Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress, July 20-25, Glasgow, Scotland.

2007

2006

Gentry, J.E., J.D. Spitler, D.E. Fisher, and X. Xu.2006.Simulation of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Systems and Experimental Validation.Proceedings of The7th International Conference on System Simulation in Buildings, Liège, Belgium.

O’Neill, Z.D., J.D. Spitler, and S.J. Rees. 2006.Performance Analysis of Standing Column Well Ground Heat Exchanger Systems.ASHRAE Transactions 112(2):633-643.

O’Neill, Z.D., J.D. Spitler, and S.J. Rees. 2006.Modeling of Standing Column Wells in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.Proceedings of the 10thInternational Conference on Thermal Energy Storage – Ecostock 2006, Pomona, NJ.

Xu, X., and J.D. Spitler. 2006.Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal Mass of the Fluid.Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage-Ecostock 2006, Pomona, NJ.

2005

Fisher, D.E., and S.J. Rees. 2005.Modeling Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in a Building Simulation Program (EnergyPlus). Proceedings of Building Simulation ‘05, August 2005, Vol. 2, pp. 311-318

Sanner, B., G. Hellström, J. Spitler, S. Gehlin. 2005.Thermal Response Test – Current Status and World-Wide Application. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey April 24-29.

Spitler, J.D., X. Liu, S.J. Rees, and C. Yavuzturk. 2005.Simulation and Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. 8th International Energy Agency Heat Pump Conference, May 30-June 2, Las Vegas.

Spitler, J.D. 2005.Ground Source Heat Pump System Research – Past, Present and Future (Editorial). HVAC&R Research 11(2):165-167.

2004

Khan, M.H., and J.D. Spitler. 2004.Performance Analysis of a Residential Ground Source Heat Pump System with Antifreeze Solution.Proceedings of the SimBuild 2004 Conference, August 4-6, Boulder, Colorado.

Liu, X., and J.D. Spitler. 2004.A Simulation Tool for the Design of the Hydronic Bridge Snow Melting System. Proceedings of the 12th International Road Weather Conference, June 16-18, Bingen (on Rhine), Germany.

Liu, X., and J.D. Spitler. 2004.Simulation Based Investigation on the Design of Hydronic Snow Melting System. Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board 83rd Annual Meeting, January 11-15, Washington, D.C.

Rees, S.J., J.D. Spitler, Z. Deng, C.D. Orio, and C.N. Johnson. 2004.A Study Of Geothermal Heat Pump And Standing Column Well Performance.ASHRAE Transactions 110(1):3-13.

2003

Jenks, S.C., J.R. Whiteley, K. N. Pandit, D. S. Arndt, M. L. Stone, R. L. Elliot, J. D. Spitler, and M. D. Smith. 2003.Smart Control of a Geothermally Heated Bridge Deck.Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board 82nd Annual Meeting, January 12-16, Washington, D.C.

Jin, H., and J.D. Spitler. 2003.Parameter Estimation Based Model of Water-to-Water Heat Pumps with Scroll Compressors and Water/Glycol Solutions. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology 24(3):203-219.

Khan, M.H., A. Varanasi, J.D. Spitler, D.E. Fisher, and R.D. Delahoussaye. 2003.Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System Simulation Using Visual Modeling Tool For Hvacsim+. Proceedings of Building Simulation 2003, Eindhoven, Netherlands, pp. 641-648.

Liu, X., S.J. Rees, and J.D. Spitler. 2003.Simulation of a Geothermal Bridge Deck Anti-icing System and Experimental Validation. Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board 82nd Annual Meeting, January 12-16, Washington, D.C.

Spitler, J.D., and C. Underwood. 2003.UK Application of Direct Cooling Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. Proceedings of ASHRAE-CIBSE Conference, September 24-26, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Spitler, J.D., X. Liu, S.J. Rees, and C. Yavuzturk. 2003.Simulation and Design of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.Journal of Shandong University of Architecture and Engineering 18(1):1-10.

2002

Bose, J.E., M.D. Smith, and J.D. Spitler. 2002.Advances in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems - An International Overview. Proceedings of the Seventh International Energy Agency Heat Pump Conference, May 19-22, Beijing, China, 1:313-324.

Jin, H., and J.D. Spitler. 2002.A Parameter Estimation Based Model of Water-To-Water Heat Pumps for use in Energy Calculation Programs. ASHRAE Transactions 108(1):3-17.

2001

Chiasson, A., and J.D. Spitler. 2001.Modeling Approach to Design of a Ground-Source Heat Pump Bridge Deck Heating System. Transportation Research Record 1741:207-215.

Ramamoorthy, M. H. Jin, A. Chiasson, and J.D. Spitler. 2001.Optimal Sizing of Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems that use a Cooling Pond as a Supplemental Heat Rejecter – A System Simulation Approach. ASHRAE Transactions 107(1):26-38.

Yavuzturk, C., and J.D. Spitler. 2001.Field Validation of a Short Time-Step Model for Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers. ASHRAE Transactions 107(1):617-625.

2000

Chiasson, A., and J.D. Spitler.2000.A Modeling Approach To Design Of A Ground-Source Heat Pump Bridge Deck Heating System.Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Roanoke, VA.

Chiasson, A.D., J.D. Spitler, S.J. Rees, and M.D. Smith.2000.A Model For Simulating The Performance Of A Shallow Pond As A Supplemental Heat Rejecter With Closed-Loop Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems. ASHRAE Transactions 106(2):107-121.

Spitler J.D., S.J. Rees, and C. Yavuzturk.2000.Recent Developments in Ground Source Heat Pump System Design, Modelling and Applications.Proc. of CIBSE/ASHRAE joint conference "20 20 Vision", September, Dublin, Session 9a, Paper A28, p.34.

Spitler, J.D., and M. Ramamoorthy 2000.Bridge Deck Deicing using Geothermal Heat Pumps. Proceedings of the Fourth International Heat Pumps in Cold Climates Conference, Aylmer, Québec.

Yavuzturk, C., and J.D. Spitler.2000.Comparative Study of Operating and Control Strategies for Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems Using a Short Time Step Simulation Model.ASHRAE Transactions 106(2):192-209.

Pre - 2000

Spitler, J.D., S.J. Rees, and C. Yavuzturk. 1999.More Comments on In-situ Borehole Thermal Conductivity Testing.The Source12(2):4-6.

Yavuzturk, C., and J.D. Spitler.1999.A Short Time Step Response Factor Model for Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers.ASHRAE Transactions105(2):475-485.

Yavuzturk, C., S.J. Rees, and J.D. Spitler.1999.A Transient Two-dimensional Finite Volume Model for the Simulation of Vertical U-Tube Ground Heat Exchangers.ASHRAE Transactions105(2):465-474.

Cullin, J. 2014.Advancements in the simulation of ground source heat pump systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Oklahoma State University.

Deng, Z.2004.Modeling of Standing Column Wells in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Oklahoma State University.

Jin, H. 2002.Parameter Estimation Based Models of Water Source Heat Pumps. Ph.D. Thesis, Oklahoma State University.

Lee, E. 2013.An Improved Hydronic Loop System Solution Algorithm with A Zone-Coupled Horizontal Ground Heat Exchanger Model for Whole Building Energy Simulation.Ph.D. Thesis, Oklahoma State University.

Liu, X. 2005.Development and Experimental Validation of Simulation of Hydronic Snow Melting Systems For Bridges. Ph.D. Thesis, Oklahoma State University.

Xu, X. 2007.Simulation and Optimal Control of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Oklahoma State University.

Yavuzturk, C. 1999.Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Oklahoma State University.